Antilia

Antilia is a private home in South Mumbai, India. It is owned by Mukesh Ambani, chairman of Reliance Industries, and has a staff of 600 to maintain the residence 24 hours a day.

As of November 2014, it is deemed to be the world’s most expensive residential property, after Buckingham Palace, which is designated as a crown property. It is thus the world’s most expensive private residential property, valued over USD1 billion. Its controversial design and ostentatious use by a single family has made it infamous across the world, with severe criticism in the architectural press and mockery in popular media.

Antilia was built in consultation with US architecture firms Perkins and Will & Hirsch Bedner Associates, with the Australian-based construction company Leighton Holdings initially taking charge of its construction. The home has 27 floors with extra-high ceilings.

X-Seed 4000

The X-Seed 4000 is a one of the most special building ever fully planned and designed on this planet. The X-Seed would have had roof 4000 metres above the ground and would be built in Japan. The idea was initially created and developed by Peter Neville. It would have a 6000 metre base which would be underwater and 800-floor capacity could accommodate 500,000 to 1,000,000 inhabitants. This structure would be composed of over 3,000,000 tons of pure steel.

Unlike conventional skyscrapers, to remain habitable the X-Seed 4000 would have to increase the pressure according to how high it goes and should have separate generators at every 100 floors. The X-Seed would have taken at least 20 years to complete and would cost about USD700 billion to USD1.2 trillion.

Hangzhou Bay Bridge

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge-or, more pressingly, the Great Trans-oceanic Hangzhou bay Bridge-is a cable-stayed structure structure. when the bridge was completed in 2008 is was the first direct road link between Shanghai and Ningbo, in the Zhejiang Province. The bridge is the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. Construction work started on 2003 and toke nearly a decade of feasibility studies. The bridge is 36 Kilometers long with six expressway lanes in two directions, making it the second longest bridge in the world. The bridge is designed to last a hundred years and to carry traffic traveling at 100 kph.

The highway runs southwest from Shanghai to the city of Jiaxin, in Zhejiang Province, before swinging southeast, directly across Hangzhou Bay, to the city of Ci-xi, also in Zhejiang Province, then continuing southeast to the major city of Ningbo. Before the bridge was completed the route between Shanghai and Ningbo was 400 kilometers and after completion of the bridge the distance is just 80 kilometers!

One important economic consequence of this is that Ningbo, with its up-to-date container port at Beilum, will be able to compete on more equal terms terms with Shanghai’s vast docks at Pu-dong for international maritime freight. To the Ci-xi, large new industrial zones are being built to add to the already massive capacity of the Yangtze Delta region. Another economic plus is that tourism, especially in the domestic market, because the bridge has made a four hour long drive into one hour long which does attract more people for their weekends.

Facts

  • The Hangzhou Bay Bridge costed approximately US$1.42 billion.
  • When the bridge was opened, the traffic flow was expected to be around 52,000 vehicles per day, though in 2009 it was raised to 96,000 vehicles per day.
  • Two thirds of china’s national private investments originate in the Province of Zhejing.

Kamuthi Solar Power Project

 

Kamuthi Solar Power Project is a solar park spread over an area of 2,500 acres in Kamuthi, 90 km from Madurai, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The project was commissioned by Adani Power. With a generating capacity of 648 MW at a single location, it is the world’s second largest solar park.

ABB commissioned five substations to connect the solar park with the National Grid on 13 June 2016.  Kamuthi Solar Power Project was completed on 21 September 2016 with an investment of around US$710 million. The solar plant consists of 2.5 million solar modules, 380,000 foundations, 27,000 metres of structures, 576 inverters, 154 transformers, and almost 6,000 km of cables. Construction of the structures needed to mount the solar panels required 30,000 tonnes of galvanised steel. Around 8,500 workers installed an average of 11 MW of capacity per day to complete the project within 8 months.

The entire solar park is connected to a 400 KV substation of the Tamil Nadu Transmission Corp. The solar panels are cleaned daily by a self-charged robotic system. Given the solar resource of around 5.5-6.0 kWh/m2 per day an annual generation of 1.3 TWh/yr may be possible.

Facts

  • Gujarat-based Adani group had signed a MoU with the Tamil Nadu government to set up the largest solar photovoltaic plant in India at a cost of Rs 4,536 crore in Ramanathapuram district.
  • Although a solar plant of 1,000 MW was proposed, the capacity was later downgraded to 648 MW as a single large tract of land was not available for the project.
  • About 4,000 acres of land was acquired on lease and only barren lands were acquired from individuals. No government land was given for setting up the plant.
  • When this solar power plant will work to its full capacity, it will account for nearly 10 per cent of India’s installed solar capacity of around seven gigawatts (GW). It is likely to produce enough power for around 150,000 local households each year.
  • On June 13, the power plant became operational after five substations successfully connected 360 MW of power to the national grid.
  • Even at 360 MW, the output of the solar park is higher than India’s first solar power park located in Charanka district of Gujarat. The current capacity of Charanka power plant is 345 MW.
  • The Adani Group had come under criticism for selling solar power to Tamil Nadu government at a much higher rate (Rs 7.01/kWh) than national average (Rs 4.70/kWh).
  • Tamil Nadu government also faced flak for fixing such a high tariff in September 2014 and sticking to the same tariff despite a visible fall in price in other states.
  • This solar plant, which is a part of Indian government’s plan to build 25 large-scale solar parks between 500 MW and 1,000 MW over five years, will sell solar power to the state government for 25 years. That indicates a huge loss to the state exchequer.
  • In February 2016, a fire broke out at the solar power plant damaging four solar panels. The fire had broken out when power was being fed into the local grid on a trial basis.

 

National Grand Theater

The National Centre for the Performing Arts and colloquially described as The Giant Egg, is an arts centre containing an opera house in Beijing, People’s Republic of China. The Centre, an ellipsoid dome of titanium and glass surrounded by an artificial lake, seats 5,452 people in three halls and is almost 12,000 m² in size. It was designed by French architect Paul Andreu. Construction started in December 2001 and the inaugural concert was held in December 2007.

The dome measures 212 meters in east-west direction, 144 meters in north-south direction, and is 46 meters high. The main entrance is at the north side. Guests arrive in the building after walking through a hallway that goes underneath the lake.

The opera house is at the center. It is the single most important element in the project, and by the art that is practiced there, it is the one that is most dependent on convention; most mysterious too. The concert hall and the theatre are situated on either side of the opera house. Access to the performance halls must never be brutal. It has to be something gradual, something that requires time and space.

The performance halls and public areas are built on a base that houses all operating and support facilities in a complex designed to be as efficiently and economically organized as an industrial production area.

Facts

  • 52 elevators and 36 escalators serve the interior of the theater.
  • A 60 meter long transparent underwater passage links the main entrance with the reception lobby.
  • in the event of an emergency, the audience can escape within six minutes.

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Petronas Towers

The Petronas Towers are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)’s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.
The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world.
Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

Facts

  • Each tower weighs 300,000 tonnes which is equal to 43,000 elephants
  • The sky-walk on the 42nd and 43rd floors is also the world’s highest sky-bridge which connects the two towers.
  • The building which is 452m high has 88 floors and 32000 windows
  • When seen from the top the tower resembles the eight point star which in Islam stands for unity, harmony, stability, and rationality.

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Kingdom Center

Kingdom Center is a 41-storey, 302.3 m skyscraper in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. It is the third tallest skyscraper in the country after the Abraj Al Bait Towers and the Burj Rafal, and is the world’s third tallest building with a hole after the Shanghai World Financial Center and Tuntex Sky Tower.

Besides the shopping mall, Kingdom Tower contains the Four Seasons Hotel Riyadh and apartments. There is a 56 m  sky bridge atop the skyscraper.

The building is situated on 100,000 square metres site with car parking for 3,000 vehicles.

The upper third of the tower features an inverted parabolic arch. The building utilities butt jointed glazing combined with the lack of both distinguished floor lines and other tall buildings around it. The lower two thirds were constructed with a reinforced concrete frame while the top third has a tubular steel frame.

The architectural model maker of the Center was Richard Tenguerian.

Facts

  • The inverted arch at the top was described by the developer as the city’s “necklace”, because the opening is lined with aluminum to highlight the unique shape in contrast all of the facade in reflective blue glass.
  •  The main lobby is a elliptical space with ribbed vaulting, elevated walkways, a fountain, and rows of palm trees. This elliptical form is a footprint used overall in the building objects and decoration.
  •  The Kingdom Center has won an important award in 2002 for its design.
  •  The original design called for a tower of 296.3 meters, but it was later increased.

Burj Khalifa

Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior completed 5 years later in 2009. The primary structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centerpiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to build the building is reportedly based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to gain international recognition.

The building was named in honor of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest tower in the world.

Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, then of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill , whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, incorporating cultural and historical elements particular to the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra.

The Y-shaped plan is designed for residential and hotel usage. A buttressed core structural system is used to support the height of the building, and the cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai’s summer temperatures. It contains a total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators.

Critical reception to Burj Khalifa has been generally positive, and the building has received many awards. However, the labor issues during construction were controversial, since the building was built primarily by workers from South East Asia, who were allegedly treated poorly.

Facts

  • More than 45,000cu meters of concrete has been poured into the foundations.
  • The 700 Private apartments in the building were sold within eight hours of going on the market.
  • Dubai Mall covers an area of more than 50 soccer pitches.

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Jin Mao Tower

The Jin Mao Tower also known as the Jinmao Building or Jinmao Tower is an 88-story  landmark skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, China. It is 421 meters tall and is one of the tall meters dings in the world. It contains a shopping mall, offices and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world.

Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Shanghai Tower it is part of the Lujiazui skyline seen from the Bund. It used to be the tallest building in China but its height was surpassed on September 14, 2007, by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is located close by.The Shanghai Tower, a 121-story building located next to these two buildings, surpassed the height of both these buildings in 2015.

In Chinese numerology, the number eight represents prosperity and brings luck to Chinese people. That is why the Jin Mao Tower in and 88 Story building since it is a business site.

The Skywalk, a 1,520 m2  indoor observation deck with a capacity of 1,000+ people, occupies the 88th floor of the building. In addition to the panoramic views of Shanghai, it offers a topside view of the hotel atrium below. It also includes a small post office. Access is through two express elevators from the basement that travel at 9.1 m/s and take 45 seconds to reach the top. As of 2009, admission to the 88th floor costs 88 RMB for adults and 45 RMB for children.

It is supposed to be lucky standing there since it is the 88th floor.

Facts

  • The world highest swimming pool, on the 57th floor, helps to counterbalance the swaying during and earthquake.
  • The 5-acre site is enclosed within a deep wall made of 27,000 cubic yards of concrete.
  • The spire is designed to resemble good luck according to Chinese symbol good luck.

Menara Telekom

Menara Tower was built just three years later the Petronas Towers. The Menara Tower is located in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. This  building was made to operate HQ of Telekom Malaysia Berhad, Malaysia Berhad is Malaysia’s leading company of Telecommunications company. It is 310 m tall, has 77 floors, and is shaped to represent a sprouting “bamboo shoot”. It is located along the Federal Highway, Sprint Expressway and Jalan Pantai Baharu and is served by the Rapid KL Kerinchi, LRT station.

It was designed by Hijjas Kasturi Associates and was constructed between 1998 and 2001 by Daewoo Construction. Menara Telekom also houses several well-known tenants, namely Mercedes-Benz Malaysia, BASF, DHL, Hapag-Lloyd, Unilever, Henkel Malaysia, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad, Takaful Nasional and the IT Department of Tenaga Nasional.

The complex also includes a theater able to seat a 2,500 audience, a large prayer hall, and a sports facility. A unique feature of the tower is its 22 open sky gardens alternating every three floors. The office floors are separated into north and south wings served by express double-deck elevators.

Facts

  • Former Malaysian Premier Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad opened the building on 10 February 2003.
  • The building can house 7,000 occupants and has 22 sky gardens.
  • Menara Tower cost an estimated $160 million to complete.