Evergreen Point Floating Bridge

Evergreen Floating Bridge

The Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, also known as the 520 Bridge and officially the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge, carries Washington State Route 520 across Lake Washington from Seattle to its eastern suburbs. The 2,350 m floating span is the longest floating bridge in the world, as well as the world’s widest measuring 35 m at its midpoint.

This bridge is made up of pontoons. Pontoons for marine industrial uses are usually fabricated from steel plate and sheet. Pontoons as parts of watercraft and aircraft are more typically molded in glass-reinforced plastic. Before the 1970s, glass-reinforced plastic was rare; older techniques include those of traditional wooden boatbuilding as well as plywood over wooden ribs or metal sheets over metal ribs (

Pontoons for marine industrial uses are usually fabricated from steel plate and sheet. Pontoons as parts of watercraft and aircraft are more typically molded in glass-reinforced plastic. Before the 1970s, glass-reinforced plastic was rare; older techniques include those of traditional wooden boatbuilding as well as plywood over wooden ribs or metal sheets over metal ribs (aluminum or steel), reflecting the prevailing practice in aircraft and boats. In model building, floats can easily be carved out of solid blocks or laminated sheets of foam.

The bridge opened in April 2016 and replaced another floating bridge of the same name at the site, which was 40 m shorter.

Planning of the replacement bridge started in 1997 with a cross-lake study conducted by the state Department of Transportation. The study followed several others in the late 20th century to find solutions to traffic on the SR 520 floating bridge, with most proposals rejected after heavy opposition from communities on both ends of the bridge.

The final environmental impact statement for the project was issued in 2011, allowing for construction of the pontoons to begin the following year.

Facts

  • The bridge has six lanes and a bicycle path.
  • It is made up of 77 pontoons and each pontoon weighs around 11,000 tons, which is the equivalent of 23 Boeing 747 jets
  • The bridge costs $4.65 billion.

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Gateway Arch

Americas tallest monument till date is a gleaming arch of stainless steel that soars 192 meters above the banks of the Mississippi. It is the world’s tallest arch, the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere, and Missouri’s tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and has become an internationally famous symbol of St. Louis.

The arch sits at the site of St. Louis’ founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River.

The Gateway Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen in 1947; construction began on February 12, 1963, and was completed on October 28, 1965, for $13 million. The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967.

In November 1944, Smith discussed with Newton Drury, the National Park Service Director, the design of the memorial, asserting that the memorial should be “transcending in spiritual and aesthetic values,” best represented by “one central feature: a single shaft, a building, an arch, or something else that would symbolize American culture and civilization.”

The idea of an architectural competition to determine the design of the memorial was favored at the JNEMA’s inaugural meeting. They planned to award cash for the best design. In January 1945, the JNEMA officially announced a two-stage design competition that would cost $225,000 to organize. Smith and the JNEMA struggled to raise the funds, garnering only a third of the required total by June 1945.

Facts

  • There are 29,000 tons of concrete in the foundations of this arch and just under half that amount again packed between its steel walls.
  • the stainless steel outer walls weigh 977 tons.
  • the two stairways to the top each have 1,076 steps.

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Mount Graham Telescope

Near the summit of Mount Graham, a 3,300-meter mountain in Arizona Stands a strange robotic structure.  Mount Graham Telescope is also known as Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO).

Construction of MGIO began in 1989. MGIO currently operates and maintains facilities for three scientific organizations. The first two telescopes, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Sub millimeter Telescope began operations in 1993. The Large Binocular Telescope, one of the world’s largest and most powerful optical telescopes, began operations using mirrors independently in 2004, with joint operations between the two mirrors beginning in 2008.

The telescopes two primary mirrors weigh each 18 tons and each is worth 11 million US$ to create this honeycomb glass they smelted borosilicate glass, rotated until a parabolic disc was formed. The mirror was cooled for few months, this mirror was 80% air which saved 56 tons and up to 2 years of labor.

Facts

  • The 2,000-ton rotating cube can turn at 2 degrees per second.
  • The structure can withstand 225km/h winds and has snow melting heaters built on its roof.
  • The first mirror was delivered in 2003 after three days of accent up the unmelted road.

 

King Mountain Windfarm

Energy has been a huge demand for modern world and the methods of supplying energy have been taken to new levels. Wind can be harnessed and can change its form to electricity, in Texas, USA, a wind farm plant has been planted. The King Mountain Wind Farm is a 278.2  megawatt (MW) wind farm in Upton County, Texas, United States. The farm has been tactically places on a plateau ranged along a mesa which can produce winds all day long.

Each windmill is at least 90 meters tall so it can produce energy more efficiently. every turbine can generate 1.4 megawatts of electricity, at its full potential it can generate 280 megawatts which can supply 800,000 homes.

The project was completed in December 2001. Annual electricity production is more than 750 gigawatt hours. The wind farm is owned by FPL Energy and the customers for the electricity generated are Reliant Energy, Austin Energy and Texas-New Mexico Power Company.

Dust, sand and high temperatures place extraordinary demands on the wind turbines. Consequently, the design was modified for the desert-like conditions, providing additional cooling and protection against wind-blown sand.

Facts

  • In the 1980 United states produced 10 megawatts of wind energy but today they produce over 6,700 megawatts.
  • In 200 years the farm will save 20 million tons of Co2 (Carbon dioxide).
  • An average american house consumes 1,000 kilowatts hours in a month.

 

CN Tower

The CN Tower is located in Toronto, Canada, Till 2007, CN Tower at a outrageous  height of 553 meters remained the tallest self supporting structure in the world, This title was held since 1975. The newly built skyscrapers were as tall as 250 meters which created problems for signals to be received by radios and televisions.

Soon many companies decided to share a 500 meter tall building to send radio signals around Toronto. A local architect Ned Baldwin, proposed an idea to make the tallest building in the world because then signals cannot be interrupted and will soon become a tourist destination and landmark.

The CN Tower opened to the public on June 26, 1976. The construction costs of approximately CA$63 million were repaid in fifteen years. Canadian National Railway sold the tower prior to taking the company private in 1995, when they decided to divest themselves of all operations not directly related to their core freight shipping businesses.

The CN Tower was practically the only development along Front Street West; it was still possible to see Lake Ontario from the foot of the CN Tower due to the expansive parking lots and lack of development in the area at the time. As the area around the tower was developed, particularly with the completion of the Metro Toronto Convention Center in 1984 and the Sky Dome in 1989 the former Railway Lands were redeveloped and the tower became the center of a newly developing entertainment area.

Facts

  • The tower contains 53,000 cubic yards of concrete and wights 130,000 tons.
  • The record for climbing the 1,776 step of the worlds longest staircase is 7 minutes and 52 seconds.
  • CN Tower stands for the towers full name Canada’s national tower.