Hangzhou Bay Bridge

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge-or, more pressingly, the Great Trans-oceanic Hangzhou bay Bridge-is a cable-stayed structure structure. when the bridge was completed in 2008 is was the first direct road link between Shanghai and Ningbo, in the Zhejiang Province. The bridge is the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. Construction work started on 2003 and toke nearly a decade of feasibility studies. The bridge is 36 Kilometers long with six expressway lanes in two directions, making it the second longest bridge in the world. The bridge is designed to last a hundred years and to carry traffic traveling at 100 kph.

The highway runs southwest from Shanghai to the city of Jiaxin, in Zhejiang Province, before swinging southeast, directly across Hangzhou Bay, to the city of Ci-xi, also in Zhejiang Province, then continuing southeast to the major city of Ningbo. Before the bridge was completed the route between Shanghai and Ningbo was 400 kilometers and after completion of the bridge the distance is just 80 kilometers!

One important economic consequence of this is that Ningbo, with its up-to-date container port at Beilum, will be able to compete on more equal terms terms with Shanghai’s vast docks at Pu-dong for international maritime freight. To the Ci-xi, large new industrial zones are being built to add to the already massive capacity of the Yangtze Delta region. Another economic plus is that tourism, especially in the domestic market, because the bridge has made a four hour long drive into one hour long which does attract more people for their weekends.

Facts

  • The Hangzhou Bay Bridge costed approximately US$1.42 billion.
  • When the bridge was opened, the traffic flow was expected to be around 52,000 vehicles per day, though in 2009 it was raised to 96,000 vehicles per day.
  • Two thirds of china’s national private investments originate in the Province of Zhejing.

Ganter Bridge

Ganter Bridge is a reinforced concrete road bridge which is the longest spanning bridge in Switzerland, located along the Simplon Pass road in the canton of Valais about 10 km south of Brig. It was designed by renowned Swiss civil engineer Christian Menn and completed in 1980. The overall length is 678 m  with a main span of 174 m, and a maximum tower height of 150 m.

The bridge’s form consists of an S-curve high above the Ganter River, at an elevation of about 1,450 m above sea level. Two main towers and five smaller piers support a total of eight spans with lengths of 35 m, 50 m, 80 m, 127 m, 174 m, 127 m , 50 m , and 35 m. The longest span between the two towers is straight, while the remaining spans lie along curves with a radius of 200 m.

Its unique design, combining elements of a cable-stayed bridge and a prestressed cantilever hollow-box girder bridge, with triangular concrete walls above the roadway which contain the prestressed cable-stays, has been awarded many prizes. This hybrid type of cable-stayed and girder bridge is sometimes referred to as an extradosed bridge.

Facts

  • The bridge is 678 meters long , with a main span of 174 meters. The tallest pier is 150 meters high.
  • The central span is straight while the sides spans are curved.
  • The piers flare outward above road deck to give an added sense of substance and solidity.

Millau Viaduct Bridge

The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France.

Designed by the British architect Norman Foster and French structural engineer Michel Virlogeux, it is the tallest bridge in the world with one mast’s summit at 343 meters above the base of the structure. It is the 17th highest bridge deck in the world, being 270 meters between the road deck and the ground below. The Millau Viaduct is part of the A75-A71 autoroute axis from Paris to Béziers and Montpellier. The cost of construction was approximately €400 million. It was formally inaugurated on 14 December 2004 and opened to traffic on 16 December. The bridge has been consistently ranked as one of the great engineering achievements of all time and received the 2006 International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering Outstanding Structure Award.

The bridge is also one of the most extremely dangerous bridge because of its location and architecture. Driving with high winds is particularly demanding for large vehicles such as trucks and buses and trailers. Their large surface, especially when the wind hits laterally, increase the risk of overturning. If traffic is not banned them altogether, there’s only one solution to avoid the accident: slow down and increase the safety distances. Light vehicles will need to exercise extreme vigilance when overtaking, especially heavyweight causing air calls and two wheels that can easily swerve. Again, slow is the best way to protect yourself.

The bridge was opened by President Jacques Chirac. In his speech he praised the design saying that it was a ‘monument to French engineering genius’ and ‘a miracle of equilibrium’.
The bridge was entirely privately financed and cost 394 million euros. The aim is to cut the traveling time to southern France, removing the bottle neck at Millau, through the completion of the motorway between Paris and the Mediterranean.

Facts

  • The Millau Viaduct Bridge has earned many records for being on of the worlds most dangerous bridge.
  • Construction record for the highest pylon was broken during the building of the bridge.
  • It is built on the harp design of cable-stayed bridges.

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