Gateway Arch

Americas tallest monument till date is a gleaming arch of stainless steel that soars 192 meters above the banks of the Mississippi. It is the world’s tallest arch, the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere, and Missouri’s tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and has become an internationally famous symbol of St. Louis.

The arch sits at the site of St. Louis’ founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River.

The Gateway Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen in 1947; construction began on February 12, 1963, and was completed on October 28, 1965, for $13 million. The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967.

In November 1944, Smith discussed with Newton Drury, the National Park Service Director, the design of the memorial, asserting that the memorial should be “transcending in spiritual and aesthetic values,” best represented by “one central feature: a single shaft, a building, an arch, or something else that would symbolize American culture and civilization.”

The idea of an architectural competition to determine the design of the memorial was favored at the JNEMA’s inaugural meeting. They planned to award cash for the best design. In January 1945, the JNEMA officially announced a two-stage design competition that would cost $225,000 to organize. Smith and the JNEMA struggled to raise the funds, garnering only a third of the required total by June 1945.

Facts

  • There are 29,000 tons of concrete in the foundations of this arch and just under half that amount again packed between its steel walls.
  • the stainless steel outer walls weigh 977 tons.
  • the two stairways to the top each have 1,076 steps.

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Menara Telekom

Menara Tower was built just three years later the Petronas Towers. The Menara Tower is located in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. This  building was made to operate HQ of Telekom Malaysia Berhad, Malaysia Berhad is Malaysia’s leading company of Telecommunications company. It is 310 m tall, has 77 floors, and is shaped to represent a sprouting “bamboo shoot”. It is located along the Federal Highway, Sprint Expressway and Jalan Pantai Baharu and is served by the Rapid KL Kerinchi, LRT station.

It was designed by Hijjas Kasturi Associates and was constructed between 1998 and 2001 by Daewoo Construction. Menara Telekom also houses several well-known tenants, namely Mercedes-Benz Malaysia, BASF, DHL, Hapag-Lloyd, Unilever, Henkel Malaysia, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad, Takaful Nasional and the IT Department of Tenaga Nasional.

The complex also includes a theater able to seat a 2,500 audience, a large prayer hall, and a sports facility. A unique feature of the tower is its 22 open sky gardens alternating every three floors. The office floors are separated into north and south wings served by express double-deck elevators.

Facts

  • Former Malaysian Premier Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad opened the building on 10 February 2003.
  • The building can house 7,000 occupants and has 22 sky gardens.
  • Menara Tower cost an estimated $160 million to complete.

 

 

 

Mount Graham Telescope

Near the summit of Mount Graham, a 3,300-meter mountain in Arizona Stands a strange robotic structure.  Mount Graham Telescope is also known as Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO).

Construction of MGIO began in 1989. MGIO currently operates and maintains facilities for three scientific organizations. The first two telescopes, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Sub millimeter Telescope began operations in 1993. The Large Binocular Telescope, one of the world’s largest and most powerful optical telescopes, began operations using mirrors independently in 2004, with joint operations between the two mirrors beginning in 2008.

The telescopes two primary mirrors weigh each 18 tons and each is worth 11 million US$ to create this honeycomb glass they smelted borosilicate glass, rotated until a parabolic disc was formed. The mirror was cooled for few months, this mirror was 80% air which saved 56 tons and up to 2 years of labor.

Facts

  • The 2,000-ton rotating cube can turn at 2 degrees per second.
  • The structure can withstand 225km/h winds and has snow melting heaters built on its roof.
  • The first mirror was delivered in 2003 after three days of accent up the unmelted road.

 

Melbourne Central

Melbourne Central is the heart of downtown Melbourne also know as the ‘Colosseum of Consumers’, Melbourn Center is an area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, and its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria’s Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne; the Hoddle Grid and Queen Victoria Market, as well as sections of the redeveloped areas of Docklands and Southbank/Wharf.

The City Centre is bordered by Spencer Street to the west and extends north as far as Grattan Street which borders Carlton. The border extends along La Trobe Street, William Street, Peel Street, Grattan Street, taking in the Queen Victoria Market, Berkeley Street, Victoria Street. To the east it is bordered by Spring Street, however, the area extends east to take in parts of Wellington Parade, Brunton Avenue, Punt Road and the Yarra River.

It borders South Yarra to the south-east at Anderson Street, Domain Road, Domain Street, Arnold Street, Fawkner Park, Commercial Road, High Street. It also borders both St Kilda along St Kilda Road and Albert Park along Queens Road, Lakeside Drive and South Melbourne along Albert Road, Kings Way, Palmerston Crescent, Wells Place and finally Southbank along St Kilda Road and the south side of Flinders Street which includes Flinders Street Station and the Melbourne Aquarium.

Most professional sporting clubs represent Greater Melbourne. An exception is the Melbourne Cricket Club and Melbourne Football Club, both based at the Melbourne Cricket Ground which was built in Jolimont, adjacent to the city but a locality of the suburb of East Melbourne. Both were the first clubs of their respective sports and established in a time when the city’s population was still very small and limited to a handful of inner suburbs.

Facts

  • The site area of the mall covers 26,067sq m.
  • The huge mall stands directly above Melbourne Center underground station for easy access.
  • Melbourn Center online keeps customers up-to-date on entertainment, special promotions, and events

Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme

In the alps in eastern Victoria and Southern new South Wales are Hydroelectric plants with the most complex integrated water and hydro-electric schemes.The Scheme consists of sixteen major dams; seven power stations; two pumping stations; and 225 kilometers of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts that were constructed between 1949 and 1974. The Scheme was completed under the supervision of Chief Engineer, Sir William Hudson and is the largest engineering project undertaken in Australia.

Construction of the Snowy Scheme was managed by the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, it officially began on 17 October 1949 and took 25 years, officially completed in 1974.

Tunneling records were set in the construction of the Scheme and it was completed on time and on budget in 1974, at a cost of A$820 million; a dollar value equivalent in 1999 and 2004 to A$6 billion. Around two thirds of the workforce employed in the construction of the scheme were immigrant workers, originating from over thirty countries. The official death toll of workers on the Scheme stands at 121 people.

The original plan was for 99% of the water of the Snowy River’s natural flow to be diverted by the Scheme below Lake Jindabyne. Releases from the Scheme were based on the needs of only riparian users and took no account of ecosystem needs; it soon became known that the lower reaches of the river were in environmental crisis. An extensive public campaign led to the Snowy Water Inquiry being established in January 1998.

The Snowy Scheme is a major tourist destination. Sightseeing driving tours to the key locations of the Scheme are popular out of regional centers like Cooma, Adaminaby and Jindabyne along roads built for the Scheme like the Snowy Mountains Highway and Alpine Way and towards sights like Cabramurra, as Australia’s highest town, spectacular dam walls, and scenic lakes.

Facts

  • The scheme was completed on time at a cost of $624,000,000.
  • he chief engineer, New Zealand-born William Hudson, was chosen to head the scheme as Chairman of the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, and was instructed to seek workers from overseas.
  • The Scheme’s largest Dam is Talbingo Dam with an embankment volume of 14 488 000 m3 and a wall height of 161.5 meters. Khancoban Dam is the longest dam in the scheme with a crest length of 1,067 metres. A variety of dam and spillway types were used in the construction.

Sydney Opera House

The Sydney opera house is not just an ordinary musical theater, the element that makes it different is the architecture that we can see inside and outside. The opera house appears like a beautiful set of sails gliding over the harbor.

Sir Eugene Goossens had proposed this idea, soon a committee was formed formed to take the idea further and in 1955 a design was found it was created by a danish architect Jorn Utzon. The Bennelong was chosen as the site to build the opera house and the work was executed in 1959.

Problems occurred which had stalled the process of building the opera house such as over-running of budgets, corruption and design problems. No matter the circumstance the Sydney Opera House was finally completed in 1973 at a cost of $78 million nearly 16 times the original estimates.

The Sydney Opera House was formally opened by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, on 20 October 1973. A large crowd attended. Utzon was not invited to the ceremony, nor was his name mentioned. The opening was televised and included fireworks and a performance of Beethoven’s Symphony IX.

Awards

  • RAIA Merit Award, 1974.
  • Meritorious Lighting Award of the Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia, 1974.
  • RAIA Civic Design Award, 1980.
  • RAIA Commemorative Award, Jorn Utzon – Sydney Opera House, 1992.

Facts

  • The tiles placed on the roof consisted of 1,056,56 which were all imported from Sweden which are self cleaning.
  • The concert hall is the world largest mechanical organ in the world , with more that 20,000 pipes.
  • HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the Opera house on 20 October, 1973. 

King Mountain Windfarm

Energy has been a huge demand for modern world and the methods of supplying energy have been taken to new levels. Wind can be harnessed and can change its form to electricity, in Texas, USA, a wind farm plant has been planted. The King Mountain Wind Farm is a 278.2  megawatt (MW) wind farm in Upton County, Texas, United States. The farm has been tactically places on a plateau ranged along a mesa which can produce winds all day long.

Each windmill is at least 90 meters tall so it can produce energy more efficiently. every turbine can generate 1.4 megawatts of electricity, at its full potential it can generate 280 megawatts which can supply 800,000 homes.

The project was completed in December 2001. Annual electricity production is more than 750 gigawatt hours. The wind farm is owned by FPL Energy and the customers for the electricity generated are Reliant Energy, Austin Energy and Texas-New Mexico Power Company.

Dust, sand and high temperatures place extraordinary demands on the wind turbines. Consequently, the design was modified for the desert-like conditions, providing additional cooling and protection against wind-blown sand.

Facts

  • In the 1980 United states produced 10 megawatts of wind energy but today they produce over 6,700 megawatts.
  • In 200 years the farm will save 20 million tons of Co2 (Carbon dioxide).
  • An average american house consumes 1,000 kilowatts hours in a month.

 

CN Tower

The CN Tower is located in Toronto, Canada, Till 2007, CN Tower at a outrageous  height of 553 meters remained the tallest self supporting structure in the world, This title was held since 1975. The newly built skyscrapers were as tall as 250 meters which created problems for signals to be received by radios and televisions.

Soon many companies decided to share a 500 meter tall building to send radio signals around Toronto. A local architect Ned Baldwin, proposed an idea to make the tallest building in the world because then signals cannot be interrupted and will soon become a tourist destination and landmark.

The CN Tower opened to the public on June 26, 1976. The construction costs of approximately CA$63 million were repaid in fifteen years. Canadian National Railway sold the tower prior to taking the company private in 1995, when they decided to divest themselves of all operations not directly related to their core freight shipping businesses.

The CN Tower was practically the only development along Front Street West; it was still possible to see Lake Ontario from the foot of the CN Tower due to the expansive parking lots and lack of development in the area at the time. As the area around the tower was developed, particularly with the completion of the Metro Toronto Convention Center in 1984 and the Sky Dome in 1989 the former Railway Lands were redeveloped and the tower became the center of a newly developing entertainment area.

Facts

  • The tower contains 53,000 cubic yards of concrete and wights 130,000 tons.
  • The record for climbing the 1,776 step of the worlds longest staircase is 7 minutes and 52 seconds.
  • CN Tower stands for the towers full name Canada’s national tower.

Taipei 101

There has always been a competition between the east Asian countries to build the tallest skyscrapers in the world. In October 2004 Taiwan came up with the massive building with a height of 508 meters. Construction on the 101-story tower started in 1999 and finished in 2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition.

The Taipei 101 has a unconventional modern architecture because of its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes.

Taipei 101 is the first record-setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. It exhibits a number of technologically advanced features as it provides a center for business and recreation.

The fiber-optic and satellite internet connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabyte per second. The double-deck elevators built by the Japanese Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation set a new record in 2004 with the fastest ascending speeds in the world at 60.6 kilometers.

Floor occupancy:

101st floor Summit 101 (Private VIP Club)
92nd – 100th floor Communication
91st floor Outdoor Observatory Deck
88th – 89th floor Indoor Observatory Deck
85th – 86th floor Observatory Restaurant
59th – 84th floor High Zone Office
59th – 60th floor Sky lobbies
35th – 58th floor Mid Zone Office
36th floor Taipei 101 Conference Center
35th – 36th floor Sky lobbies
35th  floor Amenities
9th – 34th floor Low Zone Office
B1st – 5th floor Taipei 101 Mall
B5th – B2nd floor Parking Levels

Facts

  • Taipei 101 has 101 stories above ground and 5 under ground that is why its known as Taipei 101
  • It costed about an estimated amount of $700 million
  • The damper placed in the 88th floor counters typhoons and earthquakes.

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Ice Hotel

icehotel sweden

Ever heard of it? An Ice hotel!? Well in Jukkasjarvi, Sweden, a new concept of Ice hotel has come up. The inspiration of the hotel began in 1989, when a group of Japanese ice artists visited the Swedish village of Jukkasjarvi. The next year they came with a project of building the Ice hotel.

The hotel will rebuild every spring when blocks of ice cut from the river and are stored in the freezer. When the roof starts dripping that means the season is over and let the hotel flow its way. Every guest has ice walls, ice ceilings, ice floor and ice bed with a mattress and sheet made of reindeer skins.

Each suite is individually themed and hand carved by artists commissioned from around the world and a wide range of disciplines. Spending a night in Ice hotel is a surreal experience and a memory for life.

Facts

  • Close to the Ice hotel there’s an Ice Chapel, which is often used for weddings and christenings.
  • Jukkasjarvi, the village where the Ice hotel is built means ‘The meeting place’ in the local Sami language.
  •  The ice is crystal clear because of the fresh water and the purity of the rivers water.

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