Evergreen Point Floating Bridge

Evergreen Floating Bridge

The Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, also known as the 520 Bridge and officially the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge, carries Washington State Route 520 across Lake Washington from Seattle to its eastern suburbs. The 2,350 m floating span is the longest floating bridge in the world, as well as the world’s widest measuring 35 m at its midpoint.

This bridge is made up of pontoons. Pontoons for marine industrial uses are usually fabricated from steel plate and sheet. Pontoons as parts of watercraft and aircraft are more typically molded in glass-reinforced plastic. Before the 1970s, glass-reinforced plastic was rare; older techniques include those of traditional wooden boatbuilding as well as plywood over wooden ribs or metal sheets over metal ribs (

Pontoons for marine industrial uses are usually fabricated from steel plate and sheet. Pontoons as parts of watercraft and aircraft are more typically molded in glass-reinforced plastic. Before the 1970s, glass-reinforced plastic was rare; older techniques include those of traditional wooden boatbuilding as well as plywood over wooden ribs or metal sheets over metal ribs (aluminum or steel), reflecting the prevailing practice in aircraft and boats. In model building, floats can easily be carved out of solid blocks or laminated sheets of foam.

The bridge opened in April 2016 and replaced another floating bridge of the same name at the site, which was 40 m shorter.

Planning of the replacement bridge started in 1997 with a cross-lake study conducted by the state Department of Transportation. The study followed several others in the late 20th century to find solutions to traffic on the SR 520 floating bridge, with most proposals rejected after heavy opposition from communities on both ends of the bridge.

The final environmental impact statement for the project was issued in 2011, allowing for construction of the pontoons to begin the following year.

Facts

  • The bridge has six lanes and a bicycle path.
  • It is made up of 77 pontoons and each pontoon weighs around 11,000 tons, which is the equivalent of 23 Boeing 747 jets
  • The bridge costs $4.65 billion.

Watch a Video

Burj Khalifa

Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior completed 5 years later in 2009. The primary structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centerpiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to build the building is reportedly based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to gain international recognition.

The building was named in honor of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest tower in the world.

Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, then of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill , whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, incorporating cultural and historical elements particular to the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra.

The Y-shaped plan is designed for residential and hotel usage. A buttressed core structural system is used to support the height of the building, and the cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai’s summer temperatures. It contains a total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators.

Critical reception to Burj Khalifa has been generally positive, and the building has received many awards. However, the labor issues during construction were controversial, since the building was built primarily by workers from South East Asia, who were allegedly treated poorly.

Facts

  • More than 45,000cu meters of concrete has been poured into the foundations.
  • The 700 Private apartments in the building were sold within eight hours of going on the market.
  • Dubai Mall covers an area of more than 50 soccer pitches.

Watch a Video

Jin Mao Tower

The Jin Mao Tower also known as the Jinmao Building or Jinmao Tower is an 88-story  landmark skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, China. It is 421 meters tall and is one of the tall meters dings in the world. It contains a shopping mall, offices and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world.

Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Shanghai Tower it is part of the Lujiazui skyline seen from the Bund. It used to be the tallest building in China but its height was surpassed on September 14, 2007, by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is located close by.The Shanghai Tower, a 121-story building located next to these two buildings, surpassed the height of both these buildings in 2015.

In Chinese numerology, the number eight represents prosperity and brings luck to Chinese people. That is why the Jin Mao Tower in and 88 Story building since it is a business site.

The Skywalk, a 1,520 m2  indoor observation deck with a capacity of 1,000+ people, occupies the 88th floor of the building. In addition to the panoramic views of Shanghai, it offers a topside view of the hotel atrium below. It also includes a small post office. Access is through two express elevators from the basement that travel at 9.1 m/s and take 45 seconds to reach the top. As of 2009, admission to the 88th floor costs 88 RMB for adults and 45 RMB for children.

It is supposed to be lucky standing there since it is the 88th floor.

Facts

  • The world highest swimming pool, on the 57th floor, helps to counterbalance the swaying during and earthquake.
  • The 5-acre site is enclosed within a deep wall made of 27,000 cubic yards of concrete.
  • The spire is designed to resemble good luck according to Chinese symbol good luck.

Sony Center

The Sony Center in Berlin is a part of a vast cultural and commercial quarters compromising seven buildings and covering some 120 acres on Potsdamer Platz. A number of well-known multinational corporations including  Sony and Daimler-Chrysler have been responsible for the developing sections of the scheme. Along wth its offices, Sony owns Four-story flagship style store and Sony Professional Center Site.

Sony Center contains a mix of shops, restaurants, a conference center, hotel rooms, luxurious rented suites and condominiums, offices, art and film museums, cinemas, an IMAX theater, a Legoland Discovery Centre, and a “Sony Style” store. Free Wi-Fi connections are available for all visitors. During major sports events like the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the center also had a large television screen on which the games were broadcast to viewers sitting in the large open area in the middle.

The Sony Center is located near the Berlin Potsdamer Platz railway station, which can be accessed on foot. A large shopping center is nearby, as are many hotels, the Deutsche Bahn central offices, and an office building featuring the fastest lift in Europe.

The center was designed by Helmut Jahn and Peter Walker as landscape architect and construction was completed in 2000 at a total cost of €750M. In February 2008 Sony sold Berlin’s Sony Center for less than €600M to a group of German and US investment funds, including investment bank Morgan Stanley, Corpus Sireo and an affiliate of The John Buck Company.

Facts

  • The Marlene Dietrich Collection has 440 pairs of the star’s shoes, 15,000 photos, and 2,500 sound recordings.
  • The textile material of the Forum Consists of self-cleaning Teflon fabric coated with glass fibre.
  • The fabric roof of the forum is 102 meters wide at its widest point.

Watch a Video

Gateway Arch

Americas tallest monument till date is a gleaming arch of stainless steel that soars 192 meters above the banks of the Mississippi. It is the world’s tallest arch, the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere, and Missouri’s tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and has become an internationally famous symbol of St. Louis.

The arch sits at the site of St. Louis’ founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River.

The Gateway Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen in 1947; construction began on February 12, 1963, and was completed on October 28, 1965, for $13 million. The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967.

In November 1944, Smith discussed with Newton Drury, the National Park Service Director, the design of the memorial, asserting that the memorial should be “transcending in spiritual and aesthetic values,” best represented by “one central feature: a single shaft, a building, an arch, or something else that would symbolize American culture and civilization.”

The idea of an architectural competition to determine the design of the memorial was favored at the JNEMA’s inaugural meeting. They planned to award cash for the best design. In January 1945, the JNEMA officially announced a two-stage design competition that would cost $225,000 to organize. Smith and the JNEMA struggled to raise the funds, garnering only a third of the required total by June 1945.

Facts

  • There are 29,000 tons of concrete in the foundations of this arch and just under half that amount again packed between its steel walls.
  • the stainless steel outer walls weigh 977 tons.
  • the two stairways to the top each have 1,076 steps.

Watch a Video

Menara Telekom

Menara Tower was built just three years later the Petronas Towers. The Menara Tower is located in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. This  building was made to operate HQ of Telekom Malaysia Berhad, Malaysia Berhad is Malaysia’s leading company of Telecommunications company. It is 310 m tall, has 77 floors, and is shaped to represent a sprouting “bamboo shoot”. It is located along the Federal Highway, Sprint Expressway and Jalan Pantai Baharu and is served by the Rapid KL Kerinchi, LRT station.

It was designed by Hijjas Kasturi Associates and was constructed between 1998 and 2001 by Daewoo Construction. Menara Telekom also houses several well-known tenants, namely Mercedes-Benz Malaysia, BASF, DHL, Hapag-Lloyd, Unilever, Henkel Malaysia, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad, Takaful Nasional and the IT Department of Tenaga Nasional.

The complex also includes a theater able to seat a 2,500 audience, a large prayer hall, and a sports facility. A unique feature of the tower is its 22 open sky gardens alternating every three floors. The office floors are separated into north and south wings served by express double-deck elevators.

Facts

  • Former Malaysian Premier Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad opened the building on 10 February 2003.
  • The building can house 7,000 occupants and has 22 sky gardens.
  • Menara Tower cost an estimated $160 million to complete.

 

 

 

Mount Graham Telescope

Near the summit of Mount Graham, a 3,300-meter mountain in Arizona Stands a strange robotic structure.  Mount Graham Telescope is also known as Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO).

Construction of MGIO began in 1989. MGIO currently operates and maintains facilities for three scientific organizations. The first two telescopes, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Sub millimeter Telescope began operations in 1993. The Large Binocular Telescope, one of the world’s largest and most powerful optical telescopes, began operations using mirrors independently in 2004, with joint operations between the two mirrors beginning in 2008.

The telescopes two primary mirrors weigh each 18 tons and each is worth 11 million US$ to create this honeycomb glass they smelted borosilicate glass, rotated until a parabolic disc was formed. The mirror was cooled for few months, this mirror was 80% air which saved 56 tons and up to 2 years of labor.

Facts

  • The 2,000-ton rotating cube can turn at 2 degrees per second.
  • The structure can withstand 225km/h winds and has snow melting heaters built on its roof.
  • The first mirror was delivered in 2003 after three days of accent up the unmelted road.

 

Melbourne Central

Melbourne Central is the heart of downtown Melbourne also know as the ‘Colosseum of Consumers’, Melbourn Center is an area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, and its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria’s Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne; the Hoddle Grid and Queen Victoria Market, as well as sections of the redeveloped areas of Docklands and Southbank/Wharf.

The City Centre is bordered by Spencer Street to the west and extends north as far as Grattan Street which borders Carlton. The border extends along La Trobe Street, William Street, Peel Street, Grattan Street, taking in the Queen Victoria Market, Berkeley Street, Victoria Street. To the east it is bordered by Spring Street, however, the area extends east to take in parts of Wellington Parade, Brunton Avenue, Punt Road and the Yarra River.

It borders South Yarra to the south-east at Anderson Street, Domain Road, Domain Street, Arnold Street, Fawkner Park, Commercial Road, High Street. It also borders both St Kilda along St Kilda Road and Albert Park along Queens Road, Lakeside Drive and South Melbourne along Albert Road, Kings Way, Palmerston Crescent, Wells Place and finally Southbank along St Kilda Road and the south side of Flinders Street which includes Flinders Street Station and the Melbourne Aquarium.

Most professional sporting clubs represent Greater Melbourne. An exception is the Melbourne Cricket Club and Melbourne Football Club, both based at the Melbourne Cricket Ground which was built in Jolimont, adjacent to the city but a locality of the suburb of East Melbourne. Both were the first clubs of their respective sports and established in a time when the city’s population was still very small and limited to a handful of inner suburbs.

Facts

  • The site area of the mall covers 26,067sq m.
  • The huge mall stands directly above Melbourne Center underground station for easy access.
  • Melbourn Center online keeps customers up-to-date on entertainment, special promotions, and events

Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme

In the alps in eastern Victoria and Southern new South Wales are Hydroelectric plants with the most complex integrated water and hydro-electric schemes.The Scheme consists of sixteen major dams; seven power stations; two pumping stations; and 225 kilometers of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts that were constructed between 1949 and 1974. The Scheme was completed under the supervision of Chief Engineer, Sir William Hudson and is the largest engineering project undertaken in Australia.

Construction of the Snowy Scheme was managed by the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, it officially began on 17 October 1949 and took 25 years, officially completed in 1974.

Tunneling records were set in the construction of the Scheme and it was completed on time and on budget in 1974, at a cost of A$820 million; a dollar value equivalent in 1999 and 2004 to A$6 billion. Around two thirds of the workforce employed in the construction of the scheme were immigrant workers, originating from over thirty countries. The official death toll of workers on the Scheme stands at 121 people.

The original plan was for 99% of the water of the Snowy River’s natural flow to be diverted by the Scheme below Lake Jindabyne. Releases from the Scheme were based on the needs of only riparian users and took no account of ecosystem needs; it soon became known that the lower reaches of the river were in environmental crisis. An extensive public campaign led to the Snowy Water Inquiry being established in January 1998.

The Snowy Scheme is a major tourist destination. Sightseeing driving tours to the key locations of the Scheme are popular out of regional centers like Cooma, Adaminaby and Jindabyne along roads built for the Scheme like the Snowy Mountains Highway and Alpine Way and towards sights like Cabramurra, as Australia’s highest town, spectacular dam walls, and scenic lakes.

Facts

  • The scheme was completed on time at a cost of $624,000,000.
  • he chief engineer, New Zealand-born William Hudson, was chosen to head the scheme as Chairman of the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, and was instructed to seek workers from overseas.
  • The Scheme’s largest Dam is Talbingo Dam with an embankment volume of 14 488 000 m3 and a wall height of 161.5 meters. Khancoban Dam is the longest dam in the scheme with a crest length of 1,067 metres. A variety of dam and spillway types were used in the construction.

Sydney Opera House

The Sydney opera house is not just an ordinary musical theater, the element that makes it different is the architecture that we can see inside and outside. The opera house appears like a beautiful set of sails gliding over the harbor.

Sir Eugene Goossens had proposed this idea, soon a committee was formed formed to take the idea further and in 1955 a design was found it was created by a danish architect Jorn Utzon. The Bennelong was chosen as the site to build the opera house and the work was executed in 1959.

Problems occurred which had stalled the process of building the opera house such as over-running of budgets, corruption and design problems. No matter the circumstance the Sydney Opera House was finally completed in 1973 at a cost of $78 million nearly 16 times the original estimates.

The Sydney Opera House was formally opened by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, on 20 October 1973. A large crowd attended. Utzon was not invited to the ceremony, nor was his name mentioned. The opening was televised and included fireworks and a performance of Beethoven’s Symphony IX.

Awards

  • RAIA Merit Award, 1974.
  • Meritorious Lighting Award of the Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia, 1974.
  • RAIA Civic Design Award, 1980.
  • RAIA Commemorative Award, Jorn Utzon – Sydney Opera House, 1992.

Facts

  • The tiles placed on the roof consisted of 1,056,56 which were all imported from Sweden which are self cleaning.
  • The concert hall is the world largest mechanical organ in the world , with more that 20,000 pipes.
  • HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the Opera house on 20 October, 1973.