Melbourne Central

Melbourne Central is the heart of downtown Melbourne also know as the ‘Colosseum of Consumers’, Melbourn Center is an area of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. It is the area in which Melbourne was established in 1835, by John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, and its boundaries are defined by the Government of Victoria’s Melbourne Planning Scheme. Today it comprises the two oldest areas of Melbourne; the Hoddle Grid and Queen Victoria Market, as well as sections of the redeveloped areas of Docklands and Southbank/Wharf.

The City Centre is bordered by Spencer Street to the west and extends north as far as Grattan Street which borders Carlton. The border extends along La Trobe Street, William Street, Peel Street, Grattan Street, taking in the Queen Victoria Market, Berkeley Street, Victoria Street. To the east it is bordered by Spring Street, however, the area extends east to take in parts of Wellington Parade, Brunton Avenue, Punt Road and the Yarra River.

It borders South Yarra to the south-east at Anderson Street, Domain Road, Domain Street, Arnold Street, Fawkner Park, Commercial Road, High Street. It also borders both St Kilda along St Kilda Road and Albert Park along Queens Road, Lakeside Drive and South Melbourne along Albert Road, Kings Way, Palmerston Crescent, Wells Place and finally Southbank along St Kilda Road and the south side of Flinders Street which includes Flinders Street Station and the Melbourne Aquarium.

Most professional sporting clubs represent Greater Melbourne. An exception is the Melbourne Cricket Club and Melbourne Football Club, both based at the Melbourne Cricket Ground which was built in Jolimont, adjacent to the city but a locality of the suburb of East Melbourne. Both were the first clubs of their respective sports and established in a time when the city’s population was still very small and limited to a handful of inner suburbs.


  • The site area of the mall covers 26,067sq m.
  • The huge mall stands directly above Melbourne Center underground station for easy access.
  • Melbourn Center online keeps customers up-to-date on entertainment, special promotions, and events

Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme

In the alps in eastern Victoria and Southern new South Wales are Hydroelectric plants with the most complex integrated water and hydro-electric schemes.The Scheme consists of sixteen major dams; seven power stations; two pumping stations; and 225 kilometers of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts that were constructed between 1949 and 1974. The Scheme was completed under the supervision of Chief Engineer, Sir William Hudson and is the largest engineering project undertaken in Australia.

Construction of the Snowy Scheme was managed by the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, it officially began on 17 October 1949 and took 25 years, officially completed in 1974.

Tunneling records were set in the construction of the Scheme and it was completed on time and on budget in 1974, at a cost of A$820 million; a dollar value equivalent in 1999 and 2004 to A$6 billion. Around two thirds of the workforce employed in the construction of the scheme were immigrant workers, originating from over thirty countries. The official death toll of workers on the Scheme stands at 121 people.

The original plan was for 99% of the water of the Snowy River’s natural flow to be diverted by the Scheme below Lake Jindabyne. Releases from the Scheme were based on the needs of only riparian users and took no account of ecosystem needs; it soon became known that the lower reaches of the river were in environmental crisis. An extensive public campaign led to the Snowy Water Inquiry being established in January 1998.

The Snowy Scheme is a major tourist destination. Sightseeing driving tours to the key locations of the Scheme are popular out of regional centers like Cooma, Adaminaby and Jindabyne along roads built for the Scheme like the Snowy Mountains Highway and Alpine Way and towards sights like Cabramurra, as Australia’s highest town, spectacular dam walls, and scenic lakes.


  • The scheme was completed on time at a cost of $624,000,000.
  • he chief engineer, New Zealand-born William Hudson, was chosen to head the scheme as Chairman of the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Authority, and was instructed to seek workers from overseas.
  • The Scheme’s largest Dam is Talbingo Dam with an embankment volume of 14 488 000 m3 and a wall height of 161.5 meters. Khancoban Dam is the longest dam in the scheme with a crest length of 1,067 metres. A variety of dam and spillway types were used in the construction.

Sydney Opera House

The Sydney opera house is not just an ordinary musical theater, the element that makes it different is the architecture that we can see inside and outside. The opera house appears like a beautiful set of sails gliding over the harbor.

Sir Eugene Goossens had proposed this idea, soon a committee was formed formed to take the idea further and in 1955 a design was found it was created by a danish architect Jorn Utzon. The Bennelong was chosen as the site to build the opera house and the work was executed in 1959.

Problems occurred which had stalled the process of building the opera house such as over-running of budgets, corruption and design problems. No matter the circumstance the Sydney Opera House was finally completed in 1973 at a cost of $78 million nearly 16 times the original estimates.

The Sydney Opera House was formally opened by Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, on 20 October 1973. A large crowd attended. Utzon was not invited to the ceremony, nor was his name mentioned. The opening was televised and included fireworks and a performance of Beethoven’s Symphony IX.


  • RAIA Merit Award, 1974.
  • Meritorious Lighting Award of the Illuminating Engineering Society of Australia, 1974.
  • RAIA Civic Design Award, 1980.
  • RAIA Commemorative Award, Jorn Utzon – Sydney Opera House, 1992.


  • The tiles placed on the roof consisted of 1,056,56 which were all imported from Sweden which are self cleaning.
  • The concert hall is the world largest mechanical organ in the world , with more that 20,000 pipes.
  • HM Queen Elizabeth II formally opened the Opera house on 20 October, 1973.