Hangzhou Bay Bridge

The Hangzhou Bay Bridge-or, more pressingly, the Great Trans-oceanic Hangzhou bay Bridge-is a cable-stayed structure structure. when the bridge was completed in 2008 is was the first direct road link between Shanghai and Ningbo, in the Zhejiang Province. The bridge is the longest trans-oceanic bridge in the world. Construction work started on 2003 and toke nearly a decade of feasibility studies. The bridge is 36 Kilometers long with six expressway lanes in two directions, making it the second longest bridge in the world. The bridge is designed to last a hundred years and to carry traffic traveling at 100 kph.

The highway runs southwest from Shanghai to the city of Jiaxin, in Zhejiang Province, before swinging southeast, directly across Hangzhou Bay, to the city of Ci-xi, also in Zhejiang Province, then continuing southeast to the major city of Ningbo. Before the bridge was completed the route between Shanghai and Ningbo was 400 kilometers and after completion of the bridge the distance is just 80 kilometers!

One important economic consequence of this is that Ningbo, with its up-to-date container port at Beilum, will be able to compete on more equal terms terms with Shanghai’s vast docks at Pu-dong for international maritime freight. To the Ci-xi, large new industrial zones are being built to add to the already massive capacity of the Yangtze Delta region. Another economic plus is that tourism, especially in the domestic market, because the bridge has made a four hour long drive into one hour long which does attract more people for their weekends.

Facts

  • The Hangzhou Bay Bridge costed approximately US$1.42 billion.
  • When the bridge was opened, the traffic flow was expected to be around 52,000 vehicles per day, though in 2009 it was raised to 96,000 vehicles per day.
  • Two thirds of china’s national private investments originate in the Province of Zhejing.

Kamuthi Solar Power Project

 

Kamuthi Solar Power Project is a solar park spread over an area of 2,500 acres in Kamuthi, 90 km from Madurai, in the state of Tamil Nadu, India. The project was commissioned by Adani Power. With a generating capacity of 648 MW at a single location, it is the world’s second largest solar park.

ABB commissioned five substations to connect the solar park with the National Grid on 13 June 2016.  Kamuthi Solar Power Project was completed on 21 September 2016 with an investment of around US$710 million. The solar plant consists of 2.5 million solar modules, 380,000 foundations, 27,000 metres of structures, 576 inverters, 154 transformers, and almost 6,000 km of cables. Construction of the structures needed to mount the solar panels required 30,000 tonnes of galvanised steel. Around 8,500 workers installed an average of 11 MW of capacity per day to complete the project within 8 months.

The entire solar park is connected to a 400 KV substation of the Tamil Nadu Transmission Corp. The solar panels are cleaned daily by a self-charged robotic system. Given the solar resource of around 5.5-6.0 kWh/m2 per day an annual generation of 1.3 TWh/yr may be possible.

Facts

  • Gujarat-based Adani group had signed a MoU with the Tamil Nadu government to set up the largest solar photovoltaic plant in India at a cost of Rs 4,536 crore in Ramanathapuram district.
  • Although a solar plant of 1,000 MW was proposed, the capacity was later downgraded to 648 MW as a single large tract of land was not available for the project.
  • About 4,000 acres of land was acquired on lease and only barren lands were acquired from individuals. No government land was given for setting up the plant.
  • When this solar power plant will work to its full capacity, it will account for nearly 10 per cent of India’s installed solar capacity of around seven gigawatts (GW). It is likely to produce enough power for around 150,000 local households each year.
  • On June 13, the power plant became operational after five substations successfully connected 360 MW of power to the national grid.
  • Even at 360 MW, the output of the solar park is higher than India’s first solar power park located in Charanka district of Gujarat. The current capacity of Charanka power plant is 345 MW.
  • The Adani Group had come under criticism for selling solar power to Tamil Nadu government at a much higher rate (Rs 7.01/kWh) than national average (Rs 4.70/kWh).
  • Tamil Nadu government also faced flak for fixing such a high tariff in September 2014 and sticking to the same tariff despite a visible fall in price in other states.
  • This solar plant, which is a part of Indian government’s plan to build 25 large-scale solar parks between 500 MW and 1,000 MW over five years, will sell solar power to the state government for 25 years. That indicates a huge loss to the state exchequer.
  • In February 2016, a fire broke out at the solar power plant damaging four solar panels. The fire had broken out when power was being fed into the local grid on a trial basis.

 

National Grand Theater

The National Centre for the Performing Arts and colloquially described as The Giant Egg, is an arts centre containing an opera house in Beijing, People’s Republic of China. The Centre, an ellipsoid dome of titanium and glass surrounded by an artificial lake, seats 5,452 people in three halls and is almost 12,000 m² in size. It was designed by French architect Paul Andreu. Construction started in December 2001 and the inaugural concert was held in December 2007.

The dome measures 212 meters in east-west direction, 144 meters in north-south direction, and is 46 meters high. The main entrance is at the north side. Guests arrive in the building after walking through a hallway that goes underneath the lake.

The opera house is at the center. It is the single most important element in the project, and by the art that is practiced there, it is the one that is most dependent on convention; most mysterious too. The concert hall and the theatre are situated on either side of the opera house. Access to the performance halls must never be brutal. It has to be something gradual, something that requires time and space.

The performance halls and public areas are built on a base that houses all operating and support facilities in a complex designed to be as efficiently and economically organized as an industrial production area.

Facts

  • 52 elevators and 36 escalators serve the interior of the theater.
  • A 60 meter long transparent underwater passage links the main entrance with the reception lobby.
  • in the event of an emergency, the audience can escape within six minutes.

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Petronas Towers

The Petronas Towers are twin skyscrapers in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)’s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.
The Petronas Towers were the tallest buildings in the world for six years, until Taipei 101 was completed in 2004. The height of the towers is measured to the top of their structural components such as spires, but do not include antennas. Spires are considered actual integral parts of the architectural design of buildings, to which changes would substantially change the appearance and design of the building, whereas antennas may be added or removed without such consequences. The Petronas Towers still remain the tallest twin buildings in the world.
Tower One is fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices in Tower Two, including Huawei Technologies, AVEVA, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess, Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, WIPRO Limited, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler, Microsoft, The Agency (a modelling company) and Reuters.

Facts

  • Each tower weighs 300,000 tonnes which is equal to 43,000 elephants
  • The sky-walk on the 42nd and 43rd floors is also the world’s highest sky-bridge which connects the two towers.
  • The building which is 452m high has 88 floors and 32000 windows
  • When seen from the top the tower resembles the eight point star which in Islam stands for unity, harmony, stability, and rationality.

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Burj Khalifa

Construction of the Burj Khalifa began in 2004, with the exterior completed 5 years later in 2009. The primary structure is reinforced concrete. The building was opened in 2010 as part of a new development called Downtown Dubai. It is designed to be the centerpiece of large-scale, mixed-use development. The decision to build the building is reportedly based on the government’s decision to diversify from an oil-based economy, and for Dubai to gain international recognition.

The building was named in honor of the ruler of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan; Abu Dhabi and the UAE government lent Dubai money to pay its debts. The building broke numerous height records, including its designation as the tallest tower in the world.

Burj Khalifa was designed by Adrian Smith, then of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill , whose firm designed the Willis Tower and One World Trade Center. Hyder Consulting was chosen to be the supervising engineer with NORR Group Consultants International Limited chosen to supervise the architecture of the project. The design of Burj Khalifa is derived from patterning systems embodied in Islamic architecture, incorporating cultural and historical elements particular to the region, such as in the Great Mosque of Samarra.

The Y-shaped plan is designed for residential and hotel usage. A buttressed core structural system is used to support the height of the building, and the cladding system is designed to withstand Dubai’s summer temperatures. It contains a total of 57 elevators and 8 escalators.

Critical reception to Burj Khalifa has been generally positive, and the building has received many awards. However, the labor issues during construction were controversial, since the building was built primarily by workers from South East Asia, who were allegedly treated poorly.

Facts

  • More than 45,000cu meters of concrete has been poured into the foundations.
  • The 700 Private apartments in the building were sold within eight hours of going on the market.
  • Dubai Mall covers an area of more than 50 soccer pitches.

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Jin Mao Tower

The Jin Mao Tower also known as the Jinmao Building or Jinmao Tower is an 88-story  landmark skyscraper in Lujiazui, Pudong, Shanghai, China. It is 421 meters tall and is one of the tall meters dings in the world. It contains a shopping mall, offices and the Grand Hyatt Shanghai hotel, which at the time of completion was the highest hotel in the world.

Along with the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center and the Shanghai Tower it is part of the Lujiazui skyline seen from the Bund. It used to be the tallest building in China but its height was surpassed on September 14, 2007, by the Shanghai World Financial Center which is located close by.The Shanghai Tower, a 121-story building located next to these two buildings, surpassed the height of both these buildings in 2015.

In Chinese numerology, the number eight represents prosperity and brings luck to Chinese people. That is why the Jin Mao Tower in and 88 Story building since it is a business site.

The Skywalk, a 1,520 m2  indoor observation deck with a capacity of 1,000+ people, occupies the 88th floor of the building. In addition to the panoramic views of Shanghai, it offers a topside view of the hotel atrium below. It also includes a small post office. Access is through two express elevators from the basement that travel at 9.1 m/s and take 45 seconds to reach the top. As of 2009, admission to the 88th floor costs 88 RMB for adults and 45 RMB for children.

It is supposed to be lucky standing there since it is the 88th floor.

Facts

  • The world highest swimming pool, on the 57th floor, helps to counterbalance the swaying during and earthquake.
  • The 5-acre site is enclosed within a deep wall made of 27,000 cubic yards of concrete.
  • The spire is designed to resemble good luck according to Chinese symbol good luck.

Menara Telekom

Menara Tower was built just three years later the Petronas Towers. The Menara Tower is located in Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. This  building was made to operate HQ of Telekom Malaysia Berhad, Malaysia Berhad is Malaysia’s leading company of Telecommunications company. It is 310 m tall, has 77 floors, and is shaped to represent a sprouting “bamboo shoot”. It is located along the Federal Highway, Sprint Expressway and Jalan Pantai Baharu and is served by the Rapid KL Kerinchi, LRT station.

It was designed by Hijjas Kasturi Associates and was constructed between 1998 and 2001 by Daewoo Construction. Menara Telekom also houses several well-known tenants, namely Mercedes-Benz Malaysia, BASF, DHL, Hapag-Lloyd, Unilever, Henkel Malaysia, Penerbangan Malaysia Berhad, Takaful Nasional and the IT Department of Tenaga Nasional.

The complex also includes a theater able to seat a 2,500 audience, a large prayer hall, and a sports facility. A unique feature of the tower is its 22 open sky gardens alternating every three floors. The office floors are separated into north and south wings served by express double-deck elevators.

Facts

  • Former Malaysian Premier Datuk Seri Dr. Mahathir Mohamad opened the building on 10 February 2003.
  • The building can house 7,000 occupants and has 22 sky gardens.
  • Menara Tower cost an estimated $160 million to complete.

 

 

 

Taipei 101

There has always been a competition between the east Asian countries to build the tallest skyscrapers in the world. In October 2004 Taiwan came up with the massive building with a height of 508 meters. Construction on the 101-story tower started in 1999 and finished in 2004. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening. The building was architecturally created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition.

The Taipei 101 has a unconventional modern architecture because of its postmodernist approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes.

Taipei 101 is the first record-setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. It exhibits a number of technologically advanced features as it provides a center for business and recreation.

The fiber-optic and satellite internet connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabyte per second. The double-deck elevators built by the Japanese Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation set a new record in 2004 with the fastest ascending speeds in the world at 60.6 kilometers.

Floor occupancy:

101st floor Summit 101 (Private VIP Club)
92nd – 100th floor Communication
91st floor Outdoor Observatory Deck
88th – 89th floor Indoor Observatory Deck
85th – 86th floor Observatory Restaurant
59th – 84th floor High Zone Office
59th – 60th floor Sky lobbies
35th – 58th floor Mid Zone Office
36th floor Taipei 101 Conference Center
35th – 36th floor Sky lobbies
35th  floor Amenities
9th – 34th floor Low Zone Office
B1st – 5th floor Taipei 101 Mall
B5th – B2nd floor Parking Levels

Facts

  • Taipei 101 has 101 stories above ground and 5 under ground that is why its known as Taipei 101
  • It costed about an estimated amount of $700 million
  • The damper placed in the 88th floor counters typhoons and earthquakes.

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Beijing Airport Terminal 3

The Beijing Airport Terminal 3 is a big investment for China’s fast growing economy in this world and the influx of visitors to the 2008 Olympics. The work was started in March 2004 and was completed in February 2008.The contract to build the Terminal 3 was handed to Foster and Partners in November 2004.

The building had two objectives to double the passenger capacity efficiently and safely, and to establish the airport as a symbol both of New China and of traditional Chinese national culture.The luggage transfer system is equipped with yellow carts, each of which has a code that matches the bar code on every piece of luggage loaded and allows easy and accurate tracking.

At night, the glow from the airports orange, yellow and red lights are visible through the massive roof, outlining the terminal’s distinctive silhouette and suggesting the colors of the Chinese national flag. An indoor garden is constructed in the waiting area, in the style of imperial gardens such as the Summer Palace.

Facts

  •  Terminal 3 is the most technologically advanced airport terminal in the world.
  •  It the second largest airport in the world after Dubai international airport’s terminal 3.
  •  It is the 6th largest building in the world by the area.
  • It is the world’s second busiest airport with an annual passenger traffic of 90,000,000.
  •  Aircraft movements 581,773.

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