The Niterói Contemporary Art Museum is situated in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and is one of the city’s main landmarks. It was completed in 1996. The Niterói Contemporary Art Museum has a very different and contemporary look and also is a contemporary museum. Designed by Oscar Niemeyer with the assistance of structural engineer Bruno Contarini.
The Niterói is 16 meters high; its cupola has a diameter of 50 meters with three floors. The museum was built over Boa Viagem beach and also has a neighborhood near by, there is also a reflector pool surrounding the building. The glass panes used for the Niterói were custom made and have a bronze tint. Going down to the basement, visitors can find an auditorium for 60 spectators and the area planned for the restaurant, where a thin torn window horizontally along the facade provides a glimpse of the beauty of Guanabara Bay.
5,500 tons of material were excavated to create the Niterói Contemporary Art Museum.
3,200,000 cubic meters of concrete was used to build the structure including its foundation.
Five years were needed to build the four – story structure with 300 workers taking turns in three shifts.
The Niterói Contemporary Art Museum has a foundation strong enough to hold a 10 storey building.
Among the most exuberant new towers to arrive on the New York skyline is the Westin New York Hotel on Times Square. Standing 45 stories and incorporating 863 rooms, the distinctive building is a flamboyant as its location, soaring above traffic and colorful billboards of Times Square in the Broadway theater distinct of Manhattan.
The design is conceived as a symbolic fusion of earth and sky spliced by a curving beam of light. Finishing in a skyward-pointing flourish, the western “sky” half of the tower is sheathed in vertically striped glass in intense steel-blue and pale purple. The eastern portion sits a few stories lower than its partner. It visually anchors the building to the ground by the horizontal stripes of shimmering bronze and copper glass that depict the earth. Between the two sculptural segments, the great 108 meters long Beam of Light runs up the facade facing 42nd street and bursts out the top of the building to pierce the sky.
Closer to the ground, the shaft of the tower sits on a chunky base clad in a colorful abstract design. this portion of the building contains the 126 executive club rooms and suites before is drops down the to street level, which there is a glass area. The energy and the vibrancy of the exterior is continued inside on a smaller scale. Here the distinctive color palette and geometric and abstract shapes seen on the outside are reworked and incorporated into textile and wall murals.
There is a bold abstract art, sleek black furnishings, contemporary furniture, and rooms are finessed with luxurious materials. Along with guest rooms, the hotel has bars, a pastry shop, and cafe, together with a spa and fitness center, more than 30 state-state-of-the-art meeting rooms, and no fewer than three ballrooms. Also part of the project is at ground level is E walk-a huge complex compromising stores, restaurants, a blues nightclub, and a movie theater.
Opened on October 2002, the Westin New York, which was designed by the architecture practice Architectonic, forms a key part of the regeneration of the previously run-down Times Square neighborhood. Along with theatergoers, the hotel serves a large business clientele which is drawn to the several million square feet of new office space that has been added to this area in recent years.
The hotel exterior is wrapped in 8,000 sheets of glass, back painted in different colors.
Standing 162 metres tall, this tower was the largest new-build hotel to open in Manhattan in 17 years.
There are more that 40 theaters within a few minutes’ of walk of the hotel.
Despite an almost universal recognition of the need to find alternatives to fossil fuel, the world’s insatiable demand for oil and gas continues to gain pace, driving oil companies to search fresh reserves under ever more challenging conditions. The Thunder Horse Platform in the Gulf of Mexico is an astonishing example of how this challenge has stimulated engineers to build increasingly massive and sophisticated structures.
The oil field, discovered 240 kilometers south of the Louisiana coast by BP in 1999, is the largest ever found in this region, but tapping into this rich reservoir poses problems that can scarcely be imagined. The oil lies buried under 6,000 metres of rock and mud beneath the sea 1,830 metres deep. When drilled for such a depth, oil emerges at a pressure of 17,400 psi and at a temperature of 135 degrees Celsius-conditions never previously encountered on any offshore rig. It was these extreme demands that led to innovative floating oil platform in the world.
With a deck size of three soccer field, the platform is essentially a giant raft that floats on submerged watertight pontoons.The main structure, supported on four corner columns, is a rectangular steel box measuring 136 metres long, 111 meters wide, and 10 metres high. It contains living quarters for a workforce of 139, while operational equipment is housed in modules alongside the helipad and drilling derrick on the open deck. Licked into a network of submarine pipelines, Thunder Horse is designed to produce up to 250,000 barrels of oil and 5.6 million cubic metres of natural gas a day, but, unlike most offshore rigs, it incorporates a range of innovative features designed to minimize environmental harm. Sand is bought up to the surface by pumps, then shipped to shore for cleaning and recycling, while waste water, instead of being flushed into the ocean, is mixed with seawater and then injected back into the oilfield to maintain the reservoir’s high pressure.
BP discovered this oilfield by sending the drill-ship Discovery 534 to sink a “discovery well” in 1999. Enough oil was found to have the drill-ship Discoverer Enterprise send down an appraisal well. Discoverer 534 then found more oil further north, BP started building the production platform. Despite risks that the oil estimated were wrong or the oil prices were collapse, the potential profit is enormous. Thunder Horse is expected to hand at least 1 billion barrels of oil over next 25 years and, after Hurricane Katrina struck in 2005, prices rocketed, making Thunder Horse’s “black gold” worth $70 billion on that day.
Thunder Horse PDQ was evacuated with the approach of Hurricane Dennis in July 2005. After the hurricane passed, the platform fell into a 20 degree list and was in danger of foundering. The platform was designed for a 100-year event, and inspection teams found no hull damage and no leaks through its hull.
Designing and building the platform took 15 million man hours.
Thunder Horse displaces 143,000 tons of seawater.
The platforms impact on the environment is lowered as it recovers waste heat, reducing the energy bill.
The Evergreen Point Floating Bridge, also known as the 520 Bridge and officially the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge, carries Washington State Route 520 across Lake Washington from Seattle to its eastern suburbs. The 2,350 m floating span is the longest floating bridge in the world, as well as the world’s widest measuring 35 m at its midpoint.
This bridge is made up of pontoons. Pontoons for marine industrial uses are usually fabricated from steel plate and sheet. Pontoons as parts of watercraft and aircraft are more typically molded in glass-reinforced plastic. Before the 1970s, glass-reinforced plastic was rare; older techniques include those of traditional wooden boatbuilding as well as plywood over wooden ribs or metal sheets over metal ribs (
Pontoons for marine industrial uses are usually fabricated from steel plate and sheet. Pontoons as parts of watercraft and aircraft are more typically molded in glass-reinforced plastic. Before the 1970s, glass-reinforced plastic was rare; older techniques include those of traditional wooden boatbuilding as well as plywood over wooden ribs or metal sheets over metal ribs (aluminum or steel), reflecting the prevailing practice in aircraft and boats. In model building, floats can easily be carved out of solid blocks or laminated sheets of foam.
The bridge opened in April 2016 and replaced another floating bridge of the same name at the site, which was 40 m shorter.
Planning of the replacement bridge started in 1997 with a cross-lake study conducted by the state Department of Transportation. The study followed several others in the late 20th century to find solutions to traffic on the SR 520 floating bridge, with most proposals rejected after heavy opposition from communities on both ends of the bridge.
The final environmental impact statement for the project was issued in 2011, allowing for construction of the pontoons to begin the following year.
The bridge has six lanes and a bicycle path.
It is made up of 77 pontoons and each pontoon weighs around 11,000 tons, which is the equivalent of 23 Boeing 747 jets
Americas tallest monument till date is a gleaming arch of stainless steel that soars 192 meters above the banks of the Mississippi. It is the world’s tallest arch, the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere, and Missouri’s tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, it is the centerpiece of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial and has become an internationally famous symbol of St. Louis.
The arch sits at the site of St. Louis’ founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River.
The Gateway Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen in 1947; construction began on February 12, 1963, and was completed on October 28, 1965, for $13 million. The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967.
In November 1944, Smith discussed with Newton Drury, the National Park Service Director, the design of the memorial, asserting that the memorial should be “transcending in spiritual and aesthetic values,” best represented by “one central feature: a single shaft, a building, an arch, or something else that would symbolize American culture and civilization.”
The idea of an architectural competition to determine the design of the memorial was favored at the JNEMA’s inaugural meeting. They planned to award cash for the best design. In January 1945, the JNEMA officially announced a two-stage design competition that would cost $225,000 to organize. Smith and the JNEMA struggled to raise the funds, garnering only a third of the required total by June 1945.
There are 29,000 tons of concrete in the foundations of this arch and just under half that amount again packed between its steel walls.
the stainless steel outer walls weigh 977 tons.
the two stairways to the top each have 1,076 steps.
Near the summit of Mount Graham, a 3,300-meter mountain in Arizona Stands a strange robotic structure. Mount Graham Telescope is also known as Mount Graham International Observatory (MGIO).
Construction of MGIO began in 1989. MGIO currently operates and maintains facilities for three scientific organizations. The first two telescopes, the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope and the Heinrich Hertz Sub millimeter Telescope began operations in 1993. The Large Binocular Telescope, one of the world’s largest and most powerful optical telescopes, began operations using mirrors independently in 2004, with joint operations between the two mirrors beginning in 2008.
The telescopes two primary mirrors weigh each 18 tons and each is worth 11 million US$ to create this honeycomb glass they smelted borosilicate glass, rotated until a parabolic disc was formed. The mirror was cooled for few months, this mirror was 80% air which saved 56 tons and up to 2 years of labor.
The 2,000-ton rotating cube can turn at 2 degrees per second.
The structure can withstand 225km/h winds and has snow melting heaters built on its roof.
The first mirror was delivered in 2003 after three days of accent up the unmelted road.
Energy has been a huge demand for modern world and the methods of supplying energy have been taken to new levels. Wind can be harnessed and can change its form to electricity, in Texas, USA, a wind farm plant has been planted. The King Mountain Wind Farm is a 278.2 megawatt (MW) wind farm in Upton County, Texas, United States. The farm has been tactically places on a plateau ranged along a mesa which can produce winds all day long.
Each windmill is at least 90 meters tall so it can produce energy more efficiently. every turbine can generate 1.4 megawatts of electricity, at its full potential it can generate 280 megawatts which can supply 800,000 homes.
The project was completed in December 2001. Annual electricity production is more than 750 gigawatt hours.The wind farm is owned by FPL Energy and the customers for the electricity generated are Reliant Energy, Austin Energy and Texas-New Mexico Power Company.
Dust, sand and high temperatures place extraordinary demands on the wind turbines. Consequently, the design was modified for the desert-like conditions, providing additional cooling and protection against wind-blown sand.
In the 1980 United states produced 10 megawatts of wind energy but today they produce over 6,700 megawatts.
In 200 years the farm will save 20 million tons of Co2 (Carbon dioxide).
An average american house consumes 1,000 kilowatts hours in a month.
The CN Tower is located in Toronto, Canada, Till 2007, CN Tower at a outrageous height of 553 meters remained the tallest self supporting structure in the world, This title was held since 1975. The newly built skyscrapers were as tall as 250 meters which created problems for signals to be received by radios and televisions.
Soon many companies decided to share a 500 meter tall building to send radio signals around Toronto. A local architect Ned Baldwin, proposed an idea to make the tallest building in the world because then signals cannot be interrupted and will soon become a tourist destination and landmark.
The CN Tower opened to the public on June 26, 1976. The construction costs of approximately CA$63 million were repaid in fifteen years. Canadian National Railway sold the tower prior to taking the company private in 1995, when they decided to divest themselves of all operations not directly related to their core freight shipping businesses.
The CN Tower was practically the only development along Front Street West; it was still possible to see Lake Ontario from the foot of the CN Tower due to the expansive parking lots and lack of development in the area at the time. As the area around the tower was developed, particularly with the completion of the Metro Toronto Convention Center in 1984 and the Sky Dome in 1989 the former Railway Lands were redeveloped and the tower became the center of a newly developing entertainment area.
The tower contains 53,000 cubic yards of concrete and wights 130,000 tons.
The record for climbing the 1,776 step of the worlds longest staircase is 7 minutes and 52 seconds.
CN Tower stands for the towers full name Canada’s national tower.